The man was one of two people injured in the collision, which happened at around 4.15pm on Saturday on the A449 near Dunston Business Park in Penkridge.
Two people were left injured following the crash involving a black Ford Fiesta and a Vauxhall Astra, with the driver of the Vauxhall taken to Royal Stoke Hospital with what police said they believed to be life-changing injuries.
The other man was assessed at the scene by ambulance staff, but did not require further treatment and was discharged at the scene.
Staffordshire Police has also confirmed that the driver of the Ford, an 18-year-old man, has been arrested on suspicion of causing serious injury by dangerous driving, driving without a licence or insurance and failure to stop.
The force has now issued an appeal for information and witnesses following the collision.
A spokeswoman for Staffordshire Police said: "We are appealing for information and witnesses to come forward after a man was seriously hurt in a collision near Penkridge on Saturday.
"We were called at around 4.15pm on 4 February following reports of a black Ford Fiesta being driven erratically.
"The vehicle failed to stop for officers and was then involved in a collision with a Vauxhall Astra, which was travelling towards Penkridge on the A449, near to Dunston Business Park.
"Colleagues from Staffordshire Fire and Rescue Service and West Midlands Ambulance Service attended the scene and the driver of the Vauxhall, a man in his 40s, was taken to hospital by ambulance.
"He remains in a serious but stable condition in hospital. His injuries are believed to be life-changing.
"The driver of Ford, an 18-year-old man, from the West Midlands, has since been arrested on suspicion of causing serious injury by dangerous driving, driving without a licence or insurance and failure to stop.
"He remains in police custody while inquiries continue."
Senior Collision Investigator, Detective Sergeant Paul Bradbury, said: “We are particularly keen to speak to a jogger who was seen on CCTV running in the area at the time of the collision, as well as anyone who may have relevant dashcam footage.
“Please contact us if you saw what happened as we continue to investigate the circumstances of the crash.”
Anyone with information should call us on 101, quoting incident number 553 of 4 February or email the Collision Investigation Unit directly via firstname.lastname@example.org .
Alternatively, contact Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555 111.
A spokeswoman for West Midlands Ambulance Service said: "We were called to reports of an RTC at the junction of Swan Lane and the A449 in Dunston at 4.25pm on Saturday 4th February.
"An ambulance, a paramedic officer, an Air Ambulance Critical Care Car from Tatenhill and the Midlands Air Ambulance from Cosford were sent to the scene where, on arrival, crews discovered two cars had been involved in a collision and that there were two male patients who were both out of the vehicles on arrival.
"The first patient was treated for potentially serious injuries by ambulance staff before being taken to Royal Stoke Hospital for further treatment.
"The second patient was assessed by medics but did not require hospital treatment and was discharged at the scene."