West Midlands Police said she was making her way to school when she was approached from behind on the grassy area in Sandy Lane near Booths Lane, in Perry Barr, at 8.15 on Tuesday morning.
She was grabbed around the waist by a man who attempted to drag her, but when she screamed and kicked the assailant fled from the scene on foot.
The suspect is described as, aged about 20, tall and thin. He was wearing black clothing as well as a black cap, leather gloves, big boots and a mesh type face covering and was carrying a black rucksack.
A force statement read: "The girl, aged 10, is understandably shaken, but is safe and we are supporting her. She’s bravely given us a statement to assist our investigation.
"We’re trawling local CCTV and inquiries are ongoing. We’d ask anyone who was in the area and may have seen a man matching this description to contact us.
"Fortunately incidents like this are extremely rare, but we’ve increased patrols in the area and our schools' link officer has attended the nearby school to offer reassurance and advice."
Anyone who saw a man acting suspiciously in the vicinity on September 27 should contact officers via live chat on the website or by phoning 101 quote crime reference 20/803719/22.