Ranked 51st in the world, Saudi Arabia upset the odds with a second half comeback and held on despite late pressure to pull off what will go down as one of the biggest World Cup shocks in history.
The two time winners went into the game as huge favourites - and for Aston Villa keeper Martinez it was a debut at a World Cup having made his international bow back in 2021.
And it was all going smoothly in the first period as Lionel Messi opened the scoring from the spot.
It could have been done and dusted by half time with Argentina having three goals ruled out for offside - but after the break the underdogs came out firing and in a stunning ten minute period flipped the game on its head.
Saleh Al-Shehri levelled with a low effort past Martinez before Salem Al Dawsari fired them ahead to sparking wild scenes in the stands and on the touchline.
Argentina pushed hard late in the game - but the Green Falcons put their bodies on the line to hold out against the pre-tournament favourites who came to Qatar on the back of a 36 unbeaten run.
Martinez and Argentina are back in action on Saturday against Mexico - while Saudi Arabia take on Poland.