The 73-year-old remains in hospital after being attacked on Wednesday evening in Kings Heath.
West Midlands Police said: "We've arrested two teenage boys in connection with an attack on a man as he walked home from a mosque in Kings Heath on Wednesday evening.
"The pair, both aged 16, have been taken into custody for questioning."
Muslims in Kings Heath have begun escorting worshippers home from their mosque after fears spread Wednesday's attack was connected with a previous similar crime in Edgbaston two weeks ago.
West Midlands Police have stressed they do not believe the two incidents were connected.