The 28-year-old has been a regular for Nuno Espirito Santo's table-toppers during his first season at Molineux.
Douglas, signed on a two-year deal from Turkish club Konyaspor last summer, has made 34 first-team appearances, creating 11 goals as well as scoring four times from left wing-back.
It is the first Scotland squad named by new boss Alex McLeish. The former Villa and Blues chief was appointed last month.
Douglas will hope to win his first cap in games against Costa Rica and Hungary later this month. They welcome Costa Rica on March 23 before visiting Hungary four days later.
Albion attacker Matt Phillips was also included in the 27-man squad, where there was no place for Villa man Robert Snodgrass.