The blaze broke out on the northbound carriageway between Junctions 13 and 14 at around 7.50am, which both serve Stafford, leaving lane one in need of repairs.
National Highways has warned drivers of long delays, with traffic cameras and the agency's live map showed traffic queuing all the way back to Junction 12.
The Staffordshire Fire & Rescue Service was called to the scene. A spokeswoman said: "At 8am this morning we were called to a report of a van on fire on the M6 northbound between Junctions 13 and 14.
"Crews from Stafford and Cannock attended and used two hose reel jets and breathing apparatus to extinguish the blaze.
"Recovery was arranged and the incident was left in the care of (National) Highways."
A spokeswoman for National Highways said: "The fire, involving a van, has damaged lane 1 of the motorway and this lane is closed until resurfacing takes place.
"This is likely to happen overnight, when there is less traffic, to minimise disruption for drivers."
The M6 is part of the route being used to transport the top deck of a Boeing 747 today as it makes its way from Gloucestershire to Greater Manchester, where it will become a tourist attraction at an airport.
The unusual sight is due to make its way up the M5 and M6, bound for Barton City Airport in Salford.