The BMW the man was driving was being followed by West Midlands Police officers when the crash happened, after allegedly being spotted speeding.
The car was said to have ignored the officers' request to stop, left the motorway, then rejoined at Spaghetti Junction and headed northbound.
The officers continued to follow the BMW until it crashed into barriers between Junction 6 Spaghetti Junction and Junction 7 at Great Barr.
The people inside ran away before being detained by police nearby.
Two of the arrested men needed hospital treatment but the extent of their injuries has not yet been confirmed.
All three suspects have since been released while enquiries continue.
Two fire crews were sent to the scene along with paramedics and the northbound road was closed for around an hour while debris was cleared.
The crash happened shortly before 11pm on Friday.
A West Midlands Police spokesman said: "Two men, both aged 21, were arrested and taken to hospital to be treated for injuries.
"A 19-year-old man was also arrested on suspicion of driving offences and taken to custody. All have been released while our enquiries continue.
"The incident has been referred to the force’s Professional Standards Department, as is standard procedure."
A spokeswoman for West Midlands Fire Service said: "We got the call at 10.54pm. It was one car that had hit the central reservation.
"We sent two crews to the scene and one to the other carriageway. No one was trapped.
"There were several other cars that got damaged so there was a lot of debris on the carriageway.
"It was closed for a short time to make the road clear.
"We left the scene at 11.46pm after making the vehicles safe. A total of seven cars suffered damage."