Police discovered the animals after they were called to a house on Pedmore Road in Brierley Hill regarding a separate incident on Thursday evening.
A variety of different creatures were found - including dogs, chickens and horses - which appeared to be living in a yard next to rubbish and discarded goods such as old washing machines, tyres and gas canisters.
Police said the animals were found "in a state of neglect and malnourishment" and that three men, aged 20, 30 and 44, were arrested on suspicion of animal cruelty.
Some animals were removed on Thursday, with police and RSPCA officers returning to rescue more on Friday.
Two vets were at the scene and at least five RSPCA vehicles were sent to take the animals into care, with officers from the police and animal charity seen taking several dogs into the back of vans.
The area was cordoned off as dogs of different breeds and sizes were taken from the yard, with many of their rib cages visible through their skin.
Armed police were also called to the house, next to the main A4036 road near the Merry Hill shopping centre, after a suspected firearm was found in one of the vehicles on Friday.
Multiple uniformed officers were searching the yard and house, while behind the cordon parked in front of the building were two flatbed trucks, a Land Rover, car and caravan.
A man who works nearby, and asked to remain anonymous, said: "I've never seen dogs around. I've seen chickens and a guy told me they'd seen a goat before, but we don't know what's happened.
"When I came to work this morning at around 8am there was two cop cars outside the house and there's one van there and five RSPCA vans there now."
The suspects remained in custody on Friday afternoon.
A spokesman for West Midlands Police said: "We have arrested three men, aged 44, 30 and 20, on suspicion of animal cruelty from a property on Pedmore Road, Brierley Hill.
"The RSPCA are dealing with a large number of animals found at the property in a state of neglect and malnourishment."
A spokesman for the RSPCA added: "West Midlands Police requested our assistance at a property in Brierley Hill on Thursday, July 29, night and a number of animals were removed by officers and are now in our care.
"We returned to the address on Friday, July 30, to work with police and remove further animals.
“Enquiries are ongoing so we won’t be releasing any further information at this time.”