This year’s Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to jailed Belarus human rights activist Ales Bialiatski, the Russian group Memorial and the Ukrainian organisation, Centre for Civil Liberties.
Berit Reiss-Andersen, chairwoman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, said the judges wanted to honour “three outstanding champions of human rights, democracy and peaceful coexistence in the neighbour countries Belarus, Russia and Ukraine”.
She told reporters in Oslo: “Through their consistent efforts in favour of human values and anti-militarism and principles of law, this year’s laureates have revitalised and honoured Alfred Nobel’s vision of peace and fraternity between nations, a vision most needed in the world today.”
Mr Bialiatski was one of the leaders of the democracy movement in Belarus in the mid-1980s and has continued to campaign for human rights and civil liberties in the authoritarian country.
He founded the non-governmental organisation, Human Rights Centre Viasna, and won the Right Livelihood Award, sometimes referred to as the “Alternative Nobel”, in 2020.
He was detained following anti-government protests that year and remains in jail without trial.
“Despite tremendous personal hardship, Mr Bialiatski has not yielded one inch in his fight for human rights and democracy in Belarus,” Ms Reiss-Andersen said, adding that the Nobel panel was calling on Belarusian authorities to release him.
She said the Nobel Committee was aware of the possibility that by awarding him the prize Mr Bialiatski might face additional scrutiny from authorities in Belarus.
“But we also have the point of view that the individuals behind these organisations, they have chosen to take a risk and pay a high price and show courage to fight for what they believe in,” she said. “We do pray that this price will not affect him negatively but we hope it might boost his morale.
Memorial was founded in the Soviet Union in 1987 to ensure the victims of communist repression would be remembered. It has continued to compile information on human rights abuses in Russia and tracked the fate of political prisoners in the country.
“The organisation has also been standing at the forefront of efforts to combat militarism and promote human rights and government based on the rule of law,” said Ms Reiss-Andersen.
Asked whether the Nobel Committee was intentionally sending a signal to Russian President Vladimir Putin, who turned 70 on Friday, Ms Reiss-Andersen said that “we always give a prize for something and to somebody and not against anyone”.
“This prize is not addressing President Putin, not for his birthday or in any other sense, except that his government, as the government in Belarus, is representing an authoritarian government that is suppressing human rights activists,” she said.
“The attention that Mr Putin has drawn on himself that is relevant in this context is the way a civil society and human rights advocates are being suppressed,” she added. “And that is what we would like to address with this prize.”
The Centre for Civil Liberties was founded in 2007 to promote human rights and democracy in Ukraine during a period of turmoil in the country.
“The centre has taken a stand to strengthen Ukrainian civil society and pressure the authorities to make Ukraine a full-fledged democracy, to develop Ukraine into a state governed by rule of law,” said Ms Reiss-Andersen.
Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February, the group has worked to document Russian war crimes against Ukrainian civilians.
“The centre is playing a pioneering role with a view to holding the guilty parties accountable for their crimes,” she said.
A representative of the Centre for Civil Liberties, Volodymyr Yavorskyi, said the award was important for the organisation, because “for many years we worked in a country that was invisible”.
“This is a surprise for us,” he told The Associated Press. “But human rights activity is the main weapon against the war.”
The Nobel Peace Award follows a tradition of highlighting groups and activists trying to prevent conflicts, alleviate hardship and protect human rights.
Last year’s winners have faced a tough time since receiving the prize.
Journalists Dmitry Muratov of Russia and Maria Ressa of the Philippines have been fighting for the survival of their news organisations, defying government efforts to silence them.
They were honoured last year for “their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace”.
A week of Nobel Prize announcements kicked off on Monday with Swedish scientist Svante Paabo receiving the award in medicine for unlocking secrets of Neanderthal DNA that provided key insights into our immune system.
Three scientists jointly won the prize in physics on Tuesday.
Frenchman Alain Aspect, American John F Clauser and Austrian Anton Zeilinger had shown that tiny particles can retain a connection with each other even when separated, a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement, that can be used for specialised computing and to encrypt information.
The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded on Wednesday to Americans Carolyn R Bertozzi and K Barry Sharpless, and Danish scientist Morten Meldal for developing a way of “snapping molecules together” that can be used to explore cells, map DNA and design drugs that can target diseases such as cancer more precisely.
French author Annie Ernaux won this year’s Nobel Prize in literature on Thursday. The panel commended her for blending fiction and autobiography in books that fearlessly mine her experiences as a working-class woman to explore life in France since the 1940s.
The 2022 Nobel Prize in economics will be announced on Monday.
The prizes carry a cash award of 10 million Swedish kronor (£800,000) and will be handed out on December 10. The money comes from a bequest left by the prize’s creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, in 1895.