Apologising in advance for the disruption caused by the multiple weekend closures that are due to start on January 21, National Highways says the closures are necessary because concrete needs time to set.
A diversion route will be more than 15 miles long.
The whole thing is costing around £2.5 million and run from later this month to March.
Highways England said the work involves 'vital upgrades', adding it will "ensure the road remains safe for years to come". It explained it would carry out "comprehensive repairs of the road surface and replacement of road markings and studs".
Ryan Davies the project manager at National Highways in Birmingham said: "We expect delays on the M54 and along the diversion routes during these weekends, so please consider using alternative routes where possible.
"You'll still be able to use the road as normal during the week and access will be maintained for emergency vehicles during all closures."
People living near road have been warned that they will "likely experience" more noise. People living close to the road will see additional lighting.
Mr Davies said: "During the closures, those living along the diversion routes will likely experience increased noise levels from the additional traffic.
"Residents living alongside the M54 will likely be able to hear construction noise and see additional lighting while we work.
"We apologise in advance for any disruption that this work causes."
Mr Davies said that anyone with concerns or who wants more information should email firstname.lastname@example.org or call the customer contact centre on 0300 123 5000.
What work is being carried out?
In more detail the work will be at junction 2 (Coven Interchange) to 3 (Tong and Albrighton) westbound and 4 (Shifnal) to 5 (Telford town centre) eastbound.
The junction 2 to 3 westbound closures will be from 8pm Friday to 6am Monday, from January 21 to 24; February 4 to 7; 11 to 14 and 18 to 21.
Traffic will be diverted via the A449, A5 and A41, which will be 15.4 miles in length.
Junctions 4 to 5 eastbound will see various closures on February 25 to 28; March 4 to 7; and March 11 to 14. Various different diversions will be in place, including a 3.6 mile journey around Rampart Way, the A442 and A464.
People can subscribe to a mailing list to keep in touch with developments at noreplyM54WMids@highwaysengland.co.uk