The Wolverhampton South West MP has been reappointed as an assistant whip with responsibilities to the Ministry of Defence.
His appointment was approved by the late Queen on September 7 – making it one of the last acts that she carried out in her constitutional role as Sovereign before her death on September 8.
Mr Anderson said: "I am delighted to have been re-appointed as an assistant government whip, with specific responsibilities for the Ministry of Defence.
"I was humbled that my appointment was approved by the late Queen Elizabeth II on September 7, to be announced on September 8 – the day that she sadly passed away.
"This means that my appointment was one of the last acts that Elizabeth II carried out in her constitutional role as Sovereign.
"It underscores Elizabeth II’s inspirational example of lifelong, selfless service to the nation right until the very end."
Mr Anderson said his role will involve ensuring the Government delivers on its commitments – including that veterans and their families get the help that they deserve.
"I am looking forward to fulfilling this role to the best of my ability," he added.
Mr Anderson was first elected in 2019 and did a brief stint in the whips office in Boris Johnson's final administration.
He has previously served on the Commons Defence Select Committee, where he co-authored a series of reports on issues including veterans welfare and opening up the military to more female recruits.
He has also served on the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, working with counterparts from across Europe to strengthen support for Ukraine.
Mr Anderson was among MPs to attend the Commons on Wednesday to pledge an oath of allegiance to King Charles III.