Waitrose said the store, on Penn Road, had been cleaned following a "very small number" of Covid-19 cases.
The shop has remained open to customers. Other staff members who were identified as "close contacts" have been asked to self-isolate, said a spokesman.
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A spokesman for Waitrose said: "We have cleaned all common touch points at our Wolverhampton shop after a very small number of partners [staff members] tested positive for Covid-19.
"We are staying in touch and wish them a very speedy recovery.
"All partners who have been identified as close contacts have also been asked to self isolate.
"We are in contact with our local public health protection scheme and have taken all necessary action to protect our partners and customers."