Vietnamese national Ho Sy Quoc, aged 21, has been charged with assisting unlawful immigration after being arrested by the National Crime Agency on Monday.
The charges relate to the alleged smuggling of Vietnamese migrants into the UK in the backs of lorries in August and September 2020.
Quoc, of Grove Lane, Handsworth, appeared at Birmingham Magistrates Court on Tuesday where he was remanded in custody to stand trial at Birmingham Crown Court on October 12.
NCA Branch Operations Manager Paul Boniface said: "We are determined to disrupt and dismantle people smuggling networks wherever they are operating.
"These groups treat people as a commodity to be profited from and are quite happy to put lives at risk in dangerous journeys in the back of trucks or in small boats.
"Protecting life and preventing exploitation are our priorities, and this investigation continues."