A significant decline in the number of shoppers has been attributed to pre-Christmas caution by retail experts.
Footfall in Scotland was down 2.7% in September compared with the same period last year, according to a report by Springboard and Scottish Retail Consortium.
It is the third month in a row in which a year-on-year drop in footfall has been recorded, following a 0.3% fall in August.
Shopper numbers across the UK were down last month, at an average 2.4%.
Fiona Moriarty, director of the consortium, said the significant fall in Scotland is "disappointing".
She said: "While recent months have hinted at economic recovery, many of us are still cautious about making major purchases and may want to focus on managing budgets ahead of Christmas.
"We saw a similar story in last week's Scottish sales figures which reported a slowdown after strong growth in the summer months."
The latest Scottish Retail Consortium KPMG retail sales monitor shows total sales for the month were up by 1.8% on September last year, compared with rises of 4% and 3.5% in July and August respectively.
"There's been better news in recent weeks, with signs that customers are responding well to autumn collections and thoughts are turning to the festive season," Ms Moriarty said.
Meanwhile footfall in Northern Ireland fell 3.1% and in Wales fell by 0.4% over the same period. In England the worst-hit region was the South West, down 5.5%, and the smallest fall was in London, at 1.7%.
Diane Wehrle, retail insights director at Springboard, said the 2.4% overall decline in UK footfall is a result of a drop in customer activity in all three retail environments: the high street, out-of-town retail sites and shopping centres.
"The drop in footfall this September was greater than in September 2012 in all three location types but the greatest fall has occurred in shopping centres, moving from an increase of 1.8% in 2012 to a decrease of 2.9% this year, which clearly highlights the challenges that malls are currently facing in retaining customer numbers," she said.
"Footfall generally declines over the month from August to September in high streets and shopping centres, as spending tails off with the end of the holiday and back-to-school periods.
"However, this year the 5% drop in footfall in high streets and 2.1% drop in footfall in shopping centres from August to September was more significant than in previous years, particularly for high streets, which has inevitably adversely impacted the rate of change over the year."