EVE OF MICHAELMAS: At one time in the Scottish highlands this was called Crack-Nut day and nuts were eaten in churches.
490BC: The original Marathon was won by a breathless messenger who ran 24 miles from the scene of the Battle of Marathon to the city of Athens. "Rejoice, we conquer," he gasped - then dropped dead.
929: King Wenceslaus of Bohemia, Good King Wenceslas of the Christmas carol, was murdered by his younger brother, Boleslaw.
1573: Caravaggio, Italian painter, was born in Italy.
1685: Judge Jeffreys was appointed Lord Chancellor of England.
1745: God Save The King was first performed at Drury Lane Theatre, arranged by Thomas Arne.
1865: Elizabeth Garrett Anderson qualified to become Britain's first practising woman doctor.
1923: The Radio Times was first published.
1964: Harpo Marx, the silent one who chased girls and played the harp, died aged 75.
1978: Pope John Paul I died after only 33 days as Pontiff.
1991: Miles Davis, the legendary jazz trumpeter, died aged 65. He invented an entirely new sound which became known as "cool" jazz.
ON THIS DAY LAST YEAR: Seven Britons died after a plane burst into flames and crashed in Nepal, killing all 19 on board.