Workers in the UK spend an average 12% of their annual income on costs incurred because of their jobs, according to a survey.
Work-related expenses such as childcare, commuting, work clothes and computer equipment cost the average full-time employee £2,681 per year, accounting for 12% of their disposable income, the study for the Santander 123 cashback credit card found.
Although average salaries have risen by around 1.4%, the average cost of working has increased by 10% over the past year, leaving workers significantly out of pocket, the report said.
Commuting was the greatest cost to workers, with the average annual outlay now at £785 per year, up from £766 a year ago.
Those who drive to work spend £955 a year on travel, with £835 spent on fuel, £82 on parking charges and £38 on tolls or congestion.
Those who use public transport to get to work spend slightly less money at an average of £927 per year.
Childcare was also a cost for one in five workers (19%), who spent an average of £3,656 per year, up from £3,632 last year.
Santander Cards chief executive Alan Mathewson said: "Earning a living can be an expensive task, particularly against a backdrop of rising living costs.
"The price of going to work has increased significantly since last year but average salaries have not and, as a result, workers are considerably worse off.
"There are a number of small changes people can make to their day-to-day routine that will help counterbalance these rising costs; by seeking out the best deals at the supermarket or department store and making the most of discounts and cashback offers."
Opinium Research surveyed 2,001 adults between September 6 and 9.